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Does eating and drinking forgetfully invalidate fasting?


As is narrated by Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

If somebody eats something forgetfully while s/he is fasting, and remembers that s/he was fasting, then s/he should complete his/her fast, for Allah has made him/her eat and drink. (Darimi, Sawm: 23; Muslim, Siyam: 171)

Allah does not hold humans responsible for the mistakes that they perpetrate forgetfully/obliviously. For in this case humans have no choice. It is the same for fasting, too. If one eats forgetfully even till one is full, or drinks water till one quenches one's thirst, it does not harm fasting as long as one does not remember that one is fasting. As soon as one remembers, one must immediately clean one's mouth.

This rule is also valid for supererogatory fasting, as well as the obligatory fasting. For the states that invalidate both the obligatory and the supererogatory fasting are the same.

The following hadith (saying of the Prophet), which clarifies the subject about supererogatory fasting is narrated:

Ummu Ishaq, may Allah be pleased with her, was present before Allah's Messenger (PBUH). They brought some sippet to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in a pot. Zulyadayn, may Allah be pleased with him, was also there. The Prophet gave a bone with meat to Ummu Ishaq, may Allah be pleased with her.

Zulyadayn said: “ Ummu Ishaq, eat it!”

Ummu Ishaq says:

- Then I remembered that I was fasting. My hand was virtually petrified. I could neither stretch my hand nor pull it. Thereupon, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) asked: “What happened to you?

- I said I was fasting and had forgotten that I was.

Zulyadayn said “Did you remember it only after you were full?”

Then, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated:

Complete your fasting. This is only a bounty that Allah granted you.” (Kutub Sitta, a Condensed Translation and Explanation, 9:457)

 

What is the sin of not fasting without any excuse?


Abu Hurayrah quotes the Prophet (SAW) as saying:

The one who did not fast on a (particular) day of Ramadan without a (valid) excuse will not be able to make it up by fasting a (whole) lifetime, even if he were to do that (Ibn Majah, Sawm: 14)

As it is understood from the glorious Hadith, by breaking the fast without an excuse, one makes a mistake which has a huge responsibility and so difficult to redeem.

Although one can compensate by fasting the Kaffarah Sawm of 60 days for breaking his/her fasting without any valid excuse, He/she cannot get the reward of that broken fast by any means. He/she misses out that grace.

As our Prophet stated, he/she cannot regain the same reward even  fasting yearlong rather than a Kaffarah Sawm.

Because it is impossible to regain the reward, grace of a timely worship by making Qadha of it.

 

What is the Punishment of not Fasting in Ramadan?


Abu Umamah al-Bahili, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated:

-I have heard Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, say:

“While I was sleeping, two men came and, holding both of my arms, they brought me to a mountain which was hard to climb. And they said:

“Climb this.”

When I said “I can't.” they replied:

“We will make it easy for you.”

Thereupon, I started to climb the mountain. When we reached the middle, suddenly harsh voices were heard.

When I asked: “What are those voices?” they replied:

“The clamor of the people of Hell.”

We started again. We suddenly saw a group of people whose cheek pouches were split, and out of these pouches flew blood; and their feet were bound!

I asked: “Who are they?”

They replied: “They are those who eat their fasts before due time (those who don't fast).” (at-Targhib wa’t-Tarhib, 2:453.)

 

When we need to travel in Ramadan, should we break our fast (before due time) or should we continue?


In the Qur'an, our Lord states the following about the issue:

The month of Ramadan, in which the Qur'an was sent down as guidance for people, and as clear signs of Guidance and the Criterion (between truth and falsehood). Therefore whoever of you is present this month must fast it, and whoever is so ill that he cannot fast or is on a journey (must fast the same) number of other days. God wills ease for you, and He does not will hardship for you...”The Qur'an, Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2: 185

As is understood from the verse, if hardships will are to be experienced on a journey, then there is no drawback for a Muslim to eat his/her fast (not to fast) on condition that s/he fasts at another time as compensation. In a hadith (saying of the Prophet), we see that, at a time of hardships, the Prophet himself broke his fast (before due time) so that he could set an example for his community:

Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

In the year of conquest (of Mecca), Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, headed for Mecca and set out in the month of Ramadan.

He and those with him fasted until they came to the place known as Qura'u'l-Ghamim.

Then, he asked for a glass of water there and lifted the glass. Everybody looked at the glass. Then he drank of the water.

After that, some people informed him: “Some of the people fasted (continued to fast).”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: “They are rebels! They are rebels!” (Muslim, Siyam: 90; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 18; Nasai, Sawm: 49)

Here saying that they are 'rebels' does not mean that they rebel against him. They are qualified so because they tormented their souls by persisting in a fast which would leave them weak at the time of an important campaign, under the scorching conditions of the desert.

In still another hadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that those who don't fast at times when the circumstances are harsh, are advantageous:

Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

We were together with Allah's Messenger (PBUH) in a campaign. Some among us were fasting and some not. On a hot day, we sojourned at some place. Most of those under the shade were the ones who had clothes on. Some of us were protecting ourselves from the sun with our hands.

At some time, those who were fasting collapsed on the ground, and those who weren't fasting got up, set the tents, and watered the animals.

Thereupon, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

Today those who aren't fasting earned the thawab (reward for good deeds that is tallied on judgment day).” (Bukhari, Jihad: 71; Muslim, Siyam: 100; Nasai, Sawm: 52.)

In another similar hadith, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said that it is not piety to stubbornly continue fasting under harsh circumstances:

Narrated by Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) was on a journey and saw a crowd of people, and a man was being shaded (by them). He asked, "What is the matter?" They said, "He (the man) is fasting." The Prophet said, "It is not berr (righteousness; piety) to fast on a journey."

(Bukhari, Sawm: 36, Muslim, Siyam: 92; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 43; Nasai, Sawm: 48.)

This is because in the verse above, our Lord says: “Allah wills ease for you, and He does not will hardship for you.” It is a sort of betrayal and torment to the blessing of body, which Allah granted to us, to drag ourselves into hardships. On every occasion, our Prophet set good examples of the conveniences that our religion grants to us:

Amr Ibn-i Umayya ad-Damri, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Back from a journey, I visited Allah's Messenger (PBUH). He said to me:

“O Abu Umayya, wait for the morning meal (let us eat together).”

I replied: “I am fasting.”

“Then, come, listen to me, I will inform you about the traveler.” and he carried on:

Allah freed the traveler from fasting and from half the obligatory prayer. (Nasai, Sawm: 50)

Muhammad Ibn-i Ka'b narrates:

In Ramadan, I went near Anas Ibn-i Malik, may Allah be pleased with him. He was preparing for a journey. His camel was prepared and he wore his garments of journey. He sent for a meal and ate it. I asked him:

“Is it a sunnah (an act which the Prophet performed; not required but carries much reward) (to break the fast before setting out for a journey)?

He replied: “Yes!” and getting on his mount, he set off. (Tirmidhi, Sawm: 76)

In the following hadiths, we see that under the circumstances when hardships lessen, the Prophet permits fasting:

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, narrates:

Hamza Ibn-i Amr al-Aslami, may Allah be pleased with him, asked Allah's Messenger (PBUH) about fasting on a journey. He used to fast a lot.

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) answered:

If you want, fast; if not, then don't fast (It is up to you.) (Bukhari, Sawm: 33; Muslim, Siyam: 103; Muwatta, Siyam: 24; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 19; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 42)

Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

We were together with Allah's Messenger (PBUH) (on a campaign). Some of us were fasting, and some not. Neither the fasting nor the non-fasting was reproaching one another.”

(Bukhari, Sawm: 37; Muslim, Siyam: 98; Muwatta: 23; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 42)

Abu Said al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

We would set off for journey in Ramadan with Allah's Messenger (PBUH). Neither the fasting nor the non-fasting was reproaching one another. (Muslim, Sıyam: 95; Nasâi, Sıyam: 59)

It brings more thawab for those who have the opportunity during a journey to choose to fast.  As is clearly understood from the examples above, the reason for breaking the fast before sunset during journey is the presence of hardship. Under the conditions when there is no such hardship, it would be appropriate for the believer to choose to fast.

An example about the subject from the Era of Bliss (The time of the Prophet):

Salama Ibn-i Muhabbaq, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

Whoever reaches Ramadan on a journey and has a mount to bring him to the place where he will eat, let him fast wherever he is.(Abu Dawud, Sawm: 44)

In the Qur'an, in Al-Baqarah Surah, in the 184th verse, while it is stated that those who are ill and those who are on a journey may choose not to fast in Ramadan on condition that they compensate for it later, it is also stated: “...and that you should fast (when you are able to) is better for you, if you but knew (the worth of fasting)...”

To sum up, from those hadiths, the following rule is inferred:

As being on a journey is troublesome and hard, our religion granted us easiness in such worships as obligatory prayers and fasting.

On a journey, one performs the prayers that are four raka'ah (unit of Islamic prayer, or salat; each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah) by shortening; i.e. as two raka'ah.

Such a person (on a journey) is free to choose whether to fast or not. As is clearly stated in the verse, if s/he is to suffer a real trouble and hardship, s/he can choose not to fast on condition that s/he will compensate for it after Ramadan.

It is a religious permit and convenience. If there is the opportunity to fast with ease and if s/he does not suffer from any trouble, it is more virtuous and more rewarding for him/her to fast.

Today, the circumstances in journeys are much easier; journeys which would formerly take days, weeks or even months have been reduced to hours or even to minutes. Therefore, we should refrain from misusing that permit and should not break our fast before sunset if there is no hardship.

 

Is it possible to fast in Ramadan without eating iftar (a meal eaten to break the fast after sunset)?


Such a fast was peculiar only to our Prophet and it was a sort of fasting which only he could follow. Fasting in such a way is not possible for everybody.

Anas, my Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, practiced al-Wisal (fasting continuously without breaking one's fast in the evening or eating before the following dawn) at the end of the month of Ramadan.

The community also practiced al-Wisal together with him. When the situation was relayed to Allah's Messenger (PBUH), he said:

If the month of Ramadan was prolonged for us, we would practice al-Wisal to such an extent that those going to the extremes would have to give it up.

I am not like you. I get shaded (taken good care of). My Lord makes me both eat and drink.” (Kutub-i Sitta, Condensed Translation and Explanation, 9:500)

Such a fast was peculiar only to our Prophet and it was a sort of fasting which only he could follow. Fasting in such a way is not possible for everybody.

In some worships, there are styles which only our Prophet practiced. And al-Wisal also falls into this category. As a matter of fact, in the hadith that point is clearly stated.

 

Sometimes in some countries, people start fasting earlier saying that the new moon has been seen. What is the criterion of seeing the new moon? How should the believers act regarding the issue?


Our Prophet commanded that the new moon should be seen so as to start the fasting of Ramadan. We present some examples mentioned in narrations:

Our Prophet commanded that the new moon should be seen so as to start the fasting of Ramadan. We present some examples mentioned in narrations:

Ibn-i Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both, narrates:

Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, told about Ramadan:

Do not fast until you see the new moon; and do not eat until you see the (next) new moon. Should clouds interfere (with your sight), estimate the month. (Bukhari, Sawm: 11; Muslim, Siyam: 9; Muwatta, Siyam: 1; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 4); Nasai, Sawm : 10, 11)

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, narrates:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) would not reckon the days of any month as much as he reckoned the days of Shaban (the month before Ramadan). And then he would start fasting after he had seen the crescent of Ramadan. If clouds came in between (if he could not see the new moon), he would reckon Shaban as 30 days and start the fasting of Ramadan. (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 6)

As is understood from the narrations above, the criterion of the start of Ramadan is seeing the new moon. However, the moon moves in accordance with the order established by Allah and does not delay its duty. Today, the movements of the moon can be estimated well in advance, in which case the information provided by the scientists is enough, instead of the requirement of seeing the new moon with the naked eye.

The narration below is especially meaningful regarding the issue:

Ibn-i Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, narrates:

A bedouin (wanderer in the desert) came to Allah's Messenger (PBUH) and said:

“I saw hilal (the crescent/new moon) (of Ramadan)!” The Prophet said:

“Do you witness that there is no god but Allah?”

When the man replied as “Yes!”, the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“O Bilal! Announce to the people to fast tomorrow!”(Abu Dawud, Siyam: 14; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 7; Nasai, Sawm: 8; Ibn-i Majah, Siyam: 6)

Our Prophet accepts the attestation of a bedouin regarding the issue of seeing the new moon. Seeing that our Prophet accepted a bedouin's testimony, it is clearly an apparent mistake that today some people do not take note of a number of scientists.

After all, such kinds of disagreements cause fitna (trial, tribulation, disorder in community) in the community of Islam and cause Believers to fall into dilemma. However, fitna is qualified in our Holy Book as worse than murder. (The Qur'an, Al-Baqarah, 2:191)

Our Prophet advised the community to act unanimously in fasting, festivals, and other religious practices and stated that the deed (amal) will only be valid this way.

Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

The (valid/worthy) fasting is on the day that you fast (all together). The (valid/worthy) iftar (a meal eaten to break fast after the sunset) is on the day that you eat all together. The (valid/worthy) sacrifice (al-qurban) is on the day that you slaughter sacrifices all together. Tirmidhi, Sawm 11; Abu Dawud, Sawm 5)

Another important issue in this matter is that Ramadan may sometimes last 29 days and sometimes 30. Indeed, according to both the scientific realities and the narrations from the Prophet, it is understood that Ramadan may sometimes last 29 and sometimes 30 days.

That the earth is not a round sphere but a little flattened at the poles causes the distance that the moon covers while rotating around the earth to increase and decrease and this eventually leads to the difference of days in months.

As we see in the narrations, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) took these differences in months into consideration and emphasized that Ramadan may sometimes be 29 and sometimes 30 days:

Abdullah Ibn-i Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both, narrates:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

“The Month of Ramadan is so-and-so (Meanwhile he shook both hands with all fingers for two times; in the third shake, he closed the thumb of either his right or left hand.)

In a narration by Muslim and Nasai, the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“We are an illiterate nation; we know neither how to write nor how to calculate. The moon is so-and-so.” It is said that at one time he showed twenty-nine and at another thirty. (Bukhari, Sawm: 13; Muslim, Sawm: 13-15; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 4; Nasai, Sawm: 17)

As a result, after the Prophet (PBUH) saw the crescent of Ramadan he started fasting; and when he saw the crescent of Shawwal, he celebrated the 'Eid (festival).

He also acted cautiously in the matter of seeing the new moon; encouraged everybody to try to see; and when somebody saw, he started fasting with his testimony.

Saying that the crescent should be seen only with the naked eye is a compulsion and it is not a persuasive approach.

What is important is seeing the crescent at the first night in the evening. Indeed, as the crescent will be very thin on the first day, it is not possible for everybody to see it clearly.

Therefore, it also means “seeing the crescent” to observe and see the crescent with the telescope by benefiting from the data of astronomy.

The Prophet (PBUH) informs us that this is a matter of calculation by saying: “We are an illiterate nation; we know neither how to write nor how to calculate.”

Then, the astronomical calculations were not so improved as they are now.

However, today, observing the crescent and seeing the crescent of Ramadan or Shawwal has turned into a very easy and ordinary work for astronomy.

On the other hand, in the hadith mentioned above, the Prophet (PBUH) draws attention to Muslims' acting together and gave us a lesson of unity.

Just as the science of astronomy predicts the solar and lunar eclipses that will take place years later and it turns out to be exactly true to the very second, so too is it the most appropriate way to rely on the telescope to see the crescent.

However, it in no way prevents people from observing the crescent with the naked eye; it does not mean abandoning observing the crescent, either.

 

Is it permissible to use Miswak while fasting?


Amir Ibn Rabia narrates: “I saw Hz. Muhammad (PBUH) using a miswak while fasting more times than I can count.” (Bukhari, Sawm: 27; Abu Dawud, Savm: 26; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 29)

Ibn Umar Radiyallahu Anhuma reports:

The fasting person uses miswak at the beginning and end of the day. (Bukhari, Sawm 25)

As it is understood from the Hadiths, using miswak while fasting is a deed that belongs to Ahl-i Sunnah of our Prophet (PBUH). However we see that our Religious sect Imams, who have authority on the subject of Sunnah, do Ijtihad for the details of some subjects by considering all riwayahs (narration).

According to Imam Abu Yusuf, it is makrooh for the fasting person, to use a miswak or a toothbrush which is dampened with water. It is not makrooh when a fasting person uses a miswak or a toothbrush dampened with water according to Imam Azam and Imam Muhammad. However using a toothbrush with toothpaste is definitely makrooh when fasting. It is necessary to avoid using it. But it does not invalidate the fast.

 

Does Vomiting Invalidate the fast?


Abu Hurayrah quotes the Prophet as saying:

He who vomits involuntarily is not required to fast later on; but the one who deliberately causes himself to vomit must fast later on. (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 32; Al Tirmidhi, Sawm: 25; Ibn Majah, Sawm 16)

There are two kinds of mouthful vomit; one of them is the intentional vomiting, the other is the unintentional vomiting. If mouthful vomit passes the throat by itself because of an illness, then it is unanimously agreed that it does not invalidate the fast. However,, if a person swallows it intentionally, the fast becomes invalid according to Imam Muhammad, though it does not invalidate the fast according to Imam Abu Yusuf.

Self-induced vomiting will break the fast because in such a situation, something more or less goes to the stomach. Such a breaking of the fast only requires compensation (qadha). However, if less than a mouthful vomit goes back unintentionally, the fast becomes invalid according to Imam Muhammad, though it does not invalidate the fast according to Imam Abu Yusuf. If something goes inside intentionally, then the fast breaks according to both Imams.

When self-induced or involuntary vomiting passes inside as a result of one’s own free will and if that person eats or drinks because of it, then it only requires compensation (qadha).

In essence, it is wajib to wait till iftar without eating or drinking when the fast breaks by mistake. Just like after vomiting, the fast which becomes invalid by mistake, eating or drinking only requires compensation (qadha), not a Kaffaarah (atonement).

Even an involuntary mouthful vomiting does not break the fast.

 

How should the person who realizes when he wakes up that he is junub (ritually impure) continue with the fasting? Does getting blood drawn invalidate the fast?


Abu Said, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

There are three things which do not invalidate the fast: hajamat (getting blood drawn from one's body), vomiting, and ihtilam (getting ejaculation during sleep). (Tirmidhi, Sawm 24)

As is understood from the hadith (saying of the Prophet), getting blood drawn does not break the fast. Moreover, it does not invalidate the fast to clean that area with a piece of cloth wetted with alcohol, either.

As is narrated by Abu Bakr Ibn-i Abdirrahman, may Allah be pleased with him, Aisha and Ummu Salama, may Allah be pleased with them both, told his father Marwan:

In Ramadan, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) sometimes happened to reach the time of fajr (the time of the morning prayer) as junub (necessitating full ablution) not because of a dream; he would get up and take a bath and would fast. (Bukhari, Sawm: 22, 25; Muslim, Siyam: 76; Muwatta, Siyam: 12; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 36; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 63; Nasai, Taharah: 123)

It is permitted to start fasting or to fast as junub and it does not invalidate the fast. However, as it is not permitted to stay junub so long as to skip one of the obligatory daily prayers, one must get full ablution (ghusl) by washing one's whole body. While getting full ablution, one must wash one's mouth. One must wash one's mouth in such a way that water should not flow down the throat (as one is fasting). It is not a must to gargle.

 

What a fasting person should do as a Kaffarah (Atonement) when he/she does one of the things that invalidate the fast?


Hz Abu Hurayrah R.A. narrates:

A man came to the Prophet and said:

O Messenger of Allah, I am ruined.

The Prophet (pbuh) said: "What has brought about your ruin?"

"I have had intercourse with my wife (while I was fasting) in Ramadan. Upon this, the Prophet (pbuh) said:

"Can you find a slave to set him free?"

He said: “No!”

The Prophet (pbuh) said: "Can you observe fast for two consecutive months?

He said: “No!”

The Prophet (pbuh) said: "Can you provide food for 60 poor people?"

He said: “No!”

Then the Prophet said to him, "Sit down!”

Meanwhile, a big basket which contained dates was brought to the Apostle of Allah.

The Prophet (pbuh) searched the man by asking: “Where is the questioner?”

The man answered, “It’s me! I’m here!” then The Prophet (pbuh) said:

"Give these dates in charity.”

The man said: Am I to give to one who is poorer than me? I swear to Allah that there is no family poorer than mine between the two lava plains of Medina.

The Prophet (pbuh) laughed and said:

“Then go and give it to your family to eat! (Bukhari, Sawm: 29, 31; Muslim, Siyam: 81; Muwatta, Siyam: 28; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 37; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 28)

In this Hadith, Our prophet informs us about “Kaffarah” with a very delicate way of expression to a person who had intercourse with his wife in the month of Ramadan. The subject is clear in terms of fiqh and present in all of the fiqh books. It is practiced as it is mentioned in the Hadith.

However, our Prophet (PBUH) teaches about the easiness that is present in Islam. He is teaching us not to put great pressure on people, behaving with tolerance towards them and not to alienate people from Islam.

Both Qadha and Kaffarah are required for a person who does any of the things listed below intentionally, without being forced to, without difficulty and by forgetting from the time of Imsaq (abstinence) until the Maghrib adhan:

1- Having sexual intercourse.

2- Eating, drinking or taking a medicine.

3- Deliberate swallowing of rain, hail or snow water drops that enter mouth involuntarily.

4- Smoking, burning and inhaling tobacco or any type of incense material.

5- Taking Snuff.

6- Eating suet, dried meat or raw meat.

7- Swallowing or eating something in the size of a sesame seed by chewing.

8- Eating a little salt. (As for eating much salt, it only requires Qadha.)

9- Swallowing of one’s wife’s or lover’s saliva, mouthwash. The things that are listed here contain the cure, nourishment and pleasure of the body. Thus, they require both qadha and Kaffarah.

The Kaffarah of intentional breaking of Ramadan fasting: It is a sin if there is not a valid excuse for the intentional breaking of a definite (compulsory) fard fasting. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “The expiation for spoiling a fast in Ramadan is like the expiation for zihar” (Ibnu'l- Humam, Fathu'l-Qadir, II, 70).

Therefore, a person who breaks his fast intentionally is obliged to fast 60 days successively. This is fard (compulsory) for that person. Besides, he/she has to perform qadha for the spoiled fast. There is no Kaffarah apart from the compulsory (fard) fasting such as nafila (supererogatory) fasting because breaking a fast during the month of Ramadan constitutes a sin. And it is not evaluated in the same way as Nafila (supererogatory) fasting. (Marghinani, ibid, I, 125).

 

Does it invalidate the fast to apply surma (eyeliner), to put medicine on a wound, and to apply ointment on it?


Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

A man came to the Prophet and asked him:

“O Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, my eye aches; I apply eyeliner although I am fasting (Does it invalidate my fast?)”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) replied: “No (it does not invalidate)” (Tirmidhi, Sawm: 30)

From the hadith (saying of the Prophet), the following rules are understood:

1- Applying eyeliner on the eye does not invalidate the fast.

2- The medicine put on a wound on the head or the stomach does not invalidate the fast as long as it does not penetrate into the body.

 

Does it invalidate the fast if somebody kisses his wife?


While it is permitted for an old person, it is not permitted for young people. This is because a young man may not control himself and may fall into a situation necessitating kaffarah (compensation).

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, narrates: 

“Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, would kiss one of his wives while he was fasting.” (Having said this, Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, smiled.)

In another narration, she says:

“Allah's Messenger (PBUH) would perform mubasharat (touching the wife/contact with the wife other than sexual intercourse) while fasting. He was more in control of his soul than all of you.” (Bukhari, Sawm: 24, 23; Muslim, Siyam: 62-65; Muwatta, Siyam: 14; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 33; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 31)

Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

One asked Allah's Messenger (PBUH) about mubasharat of the fasting person with his wife.

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave him permission.

After that, somebody else came, he asked the same question, too. The Prophet forbade him from mubasharat (with his wife).

The one to whom  Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave permission was an old man; and the one whom he forbade from mubasharat was young. (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 35)

Jaber, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

Umar Ibn-i Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, (came with alarm and) said:

“O Allah's Messenger (PBUH)! Today I have made a grave mistake; I kissed (my wife) while I was fasting.”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) answered thus:

“Do you not take water in your mouth while fasting (so as to get Wudu: ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat)? (Does it invalidate your fast)?”

(One of the narrators, Isa Ibn-i Hammad, says in his narration:)

I said: “There is no harm in that.”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

“Then why (do you take alarm about kissing)?”

(Abu Dawud, Sawm: 33)

'Mubasharat' means getting closer and a husband's benefiting from his wife.

Here, it is used with the meaning of benefiting from one's wife's body except for sexual intercourse.

While it is permitted for an old person, it is not permitted for young people. This is because a young man may not control himself and may fall into a situation necessitating kaffarah (compensation).

 

Is it permissible for a pregnant and breast-feeding woman to fast?


Enes Ibn Malik (R.A.) quotes the Prophet as saying:

Undoubtedly Allah has relieved the travelers of fasting and half of the prayer, and the pregnant and the breast-feeding women of the fast." (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 44, Tirmidhi, Sawm: 21; Ibn Majah Sıyam: 12)

If pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers cannot endure fasting, they don’t have to fast in the month of Ramadan. They can perform their missed fast(s) without any necessary order at a reasonable time after Ramadan.